History shows that religious intolerance was the cause of the riot that took place in kano on may 1, 1953 which began a series of violent attacks against nonmuslims in the country. In this paper, we shall hold nigerias underdevelopment to mean qualitative and quantitative hindrance to political, social and economic development with regards. Regional rivalry, party politics, and ethnic identity in. Religious bigotry between christians and moslems is one of the key causes of ethnic conflict in nigeria. Political elite, ethnic politics and leadership deficit in.
Prebendal tendencies that have deprived the general public of the benefits of its vast oil reserves have also undermined the legitimacy of political institutions. So until the government of nigeria takes education as seriously as it takes foreign exchange, the teachers can only do so much. Influence of ethnicity and religion in nigerian elections. Boko haram insurgency, religious violence, ethnic politics, terrorism, sustainable national development 1. The details he presents about ethnic and language group formation and about perceptions of ethnic favouritism make the book interesting and a must read. Nigeria s flag consists of three equal vertical bands of green, white, and green. Pdf nigeria with over 300 ethnic groups, over dialects, who practiced several religions, with different cultures and histories came under. The question tested students conceptual knowledge, analytical skills and knowledge of an array of issues related to contemporary nigerian politics. Nigerias creaky political system council on foreign relations. Nigeria has made progress since its return to democracy in 1999. Ethnic conflict and sustainable development in nigeria. Culture of nigeria history, people, clothing, traditions. Journal of nigeria studies volume 1, number 2, fall 2012 political leadership and corruption in nigeria since 1960.
Ethnic politics and effects on national integration nigeria party politics has been characterised by ethnic chauvinism. As calls for selfdetermination and a transfer of power into the hands of nigerians grew, britain began. Nigeria could have experience great development in his regime if not that president yaradua was a sickler. Okwudiba nnoli author of ethnic politics in nigeria. The inferiority complex of women regarding active political participation and representation constitute the crux of this study. While it remains true that nigeria is governed by democratically elected leaders at the federal and state levels, nigeria is yet to institutionalise democracy after a century of existence as a political entity. Download pdf ethnicity and development in nigeria free. In order to do the necessary formulation that we pointed out in the foregoing, we need to know a bit about the history of nigerias birth. Monitoring participation of women in politics in nigeria paper presented by mrs. Paradoxically, despite its contemporary currency, the word itself in current usage is recent, first appearing in the oxford english dictionary only in 1953. Journal of modern african studies posners book should still be recognised as an important contribution to understanding the relationship between politics and ethnicity in africa. Oloyede oluyemi national bureau of statistics nbs, abuja, nigeria abstract nigeria has been recording low participation of women in both elective and appointive positions. But a political system crippled by corruption and dogged by ethnic tensions threatens to.
Kamwe adamawa state and borno state republic of cameroon name of ethnic group state abayon cross river state. Nigeria is a federal republic, with executive power exercised by the. Ap comparative government and politics nigeria briefing paper. Political authority and the nigerian civil service by humphrey n. Ethnic politics in nigeria download ethnic politics in nigeria ebook pdf or read online books in pdf, epub, and mobi format. This article is focused on the historical incidents of ethnic conflicts in within nigeria societies, the cause of the conflicts and perhaps, the government actions towards ethnic conflict in the country. Nigerias flag consists of three equal vertical bands of green, white, and green. From the 1950s, elections in nigeria approximated a war wage to determine who get what, when and how oyediran 1997. Relationship between education and politics in nigeria. Going by the code of conduct of nigerian journalists, putting ethnicity into consideration in political reporting is definitely unethical. The paper discusses some of the impediments to the institutionalisation of democracy in nigeria after more. This is the relationship between education and politics in nigeria.
Geography nigeria is the most populous country in africa and accounts for over half of west africas population. Mar 20, 2019 nigeria is made up of a population of about 158. Available records on the history of the political development of nigeria since independence have shown that the reins of government has always fallen into the hands of a political leadership class that showed more interest in private, group or ethnic gains than in the general wellbeing of the nigerian state. Pdf without any form of prejudice, it is a fact that nigeria is a multiethnic state with differences in its sociopolitical and economic. Implication for sustainable national development ntamu, g. Thus, it would be an act of political folly for any statesman or academic to disregard the dynamics of majority minority ethnic conflicts in their respective states. The situation in nigeria today seems to prove those fears true. One of the greatest challenges facing modern societies is participating actively in nigeria politics. Ethnicity is now universally regarded as a key element in the political process in african states. Since 1982, nigeria has experienced more than ten large scale ethnic or religious riots in its major cities. In october 1963, nigeria altered its relationship with the united kingdom by proclaiming itself a federal republic and promulgating a new constitution.
Ethnic politics, political corruption and poverty vcu scholars. Nigeria s underdevelopment, with special reference to her political, economic and social domains. Ethnic politics in nigeria by okwudiba nnoli enugu, fourth dimension publishers, 1978. From our discussion so far, it is logical to argue as nnoli 1978 did that the nigerian politics have presented an image of struggle among various ethnic groups for the sharing of national resources. This was a major seed of conflict that is still troubling nigeria today. Ethnic politics and democratic consolidation in nigeria. The rise of nationalism and religious politics in nigeria. Ideologically, as argued by marxists, the ruling class determines the form and content of the means of production as well as the distribution and consumption of national wealth. It could manifest in the area of religion, economy, education, military, politics, and among professionals. However, in nigeria, owing to incessant military coups coupled with the ethnicisation of politics. Jan 10, 2016 during his regime nigeria experience peace and he also concentrate most on rule of law he is of the notion that every humans are equally and should be treated equally. Political leadership and corruption in nigeria since 1960. One of the other crucial causes of ethnic conflict in nigeria is the introduction of sharia criminal legal system in some parts of northern nigeria. The military which has ruled nigeria has tried both autocratic and dictatorial methods as a solution instead nigeria slides deeper into disunity and underdevelopment.
Ethnoreligious politics in nigeria ethnicity is a complex word as various views hardly find common ground if there is any at all. It should therefore be noted that in sharply divided societies, like nigeria where islam and christianity are in competition, ethnic sentiments are. Though this study will limit itself to the pivotal roles the mass media should play in shaping the desired political culture in nigeria yet, it is aimed at highlighting the areas in which the mass media can intervene in promoting the desired political. Several dominant themes in nigerian history are essential for understanding contemporary nigerian politics and society. As a result, in northern nigeria, minority ethnic groups, mostly christians, defined and still define themselves against the muslim hausafulani majority, under the political rubric of middle belt. Okwudiba nnoli is the author of ethnic politics in nigeria 3. When nigerians won political independence from great britain in 1960, they adopted its parliamentary form of political representation. Unfortunately, since 1960, nigeria has experienced all kinds of political and economic strategies, which instead of giving positive result turns the country into the worst. In 1999, important shifts in presidential politics led to the rebalancing of power relations between the north of nigeria and the more economically productive south. It has been estimated that nigeria has as much as 350 ethnic groups based on lingual classification. A nation held hostage to preventable events of tragic nature.
It examines the impact of globalization on industrialization and the attendant problems of globalization on the nigerian economy. Ethnicity, democracy and the development nexus in nigeria. Thus providing nigeria with a cheqeured history with political transitions from civilian to military. Expectedly, politics by its nature and character is to give birth to a democratic structure capable of engendering development. Explaining the changing patterns of ethnic politics in nigeria. The idoma language is classified in the akweya subgroup of the idomoid languages of the voltaniger family, which include alago, agatu, etulo and yala languages of benue, nasarawa and northern cross.
Institutions and ethnic politics in africa by daniel n. Nigerian political movements, media outlets, and trade unions whose purpose was the advancement of all nigerians, not specific ethnic groups, became commonplace. Rwanda, burundi, zaire, ethiopia zanzibar, uganda, nigeria, the chad and angola 1. The political culture in nigeria is characterized by intolerance, intimidation, thuggery, assassination, bitterness, apathy, indolence, money and ethnic politics. Nigeria project without considering the ethnic formation of country. The implication for politics is that it is a common phenomenon in the society that success in life meant one should belong to one or all of the associations or blocks, because the blocks and associations are so influential at all levels of the political, economic and social spectrum in nigeria. For example, the action group as a party developed from a. The federal government of nigeria is composed of three distinct branches. Imperialism and ethnic politics in nigeria 1960 1996. First, the spread of islam, predominantly in the north but later in southwestern nigeria as well, began a. Click download or read online button to ethnic politics in nigeria book pdf for free now. In the nigerian case study, the reconfiguration, formation of political parties, distribution of human and material resources and even crises coups, civil war, and religious impasse are hinged on ethnoreligious politics. Finally, students were asked to explain why nigeria s federal structure has failed to resolve tensions in the niger river delta. Ethnic minority conflicts and governance in nigeria.
Benefiting from natural resources nigerias oilrich delta region generates enough revenue to address many of the. Political parties usually play crucial role in the democratic. Ugwuja daniel department of political science, enugu state university of science and technology, nigeria abstract. This is one of the major challenges confronting the advancement of liberal democracy in nigeria since independence. Historical background to electoral violence in nigeria in the words of alanamu 2005, the history of violence in nigeria politics dates back to colonial era. Despite the breaking down of nigeria into 36 states with fct, the politics being practiced in nigeria is that of politics of ethnicity, gangup politics and political party with ethnic affiliation. Focusing on nigeria, today, there are two dominant religious groups in nigeria, islam and christianity. Another achievement at the part of british people was division of northern and southern part of the basis of ethnic groups and they.
Pdf ethnic relations and politics in nigeria moses. Most often ethnic sentiments are used to replace merit and skills, such that round pegs are no longer found in round holes. This study investigates the political economy of globalization in the development process in nigeria. Northern nigeria is witnessing an upheaval in its political and social space. Because of strong religious and ethnic hostility, some. Ethnic politics in nigeria by okwudiba nnoli enugu, fourth. Ethnic politics and its implications for the survival of democracy in. If there is any time to address the ethnic question in nigeria again, it has to be now. But nigeria s first republic was markedly unstable, marred by powergrabbing, corruption and, in the end, the civil unrest was only quelled by a military coup detat in 1966.
Ethnic politics and its implications for the survival of. The origin, development, ethnic politics, impacts, postcolonial governance. The foregoing discussion of the travails and struggles of ethnic minority communities in rivers and kaduna states the former contending against economic expropriation and the latter against both cultural extinction and politicoeconomic marginalization may now be related to the wider dimensions and conditions of ethnic minority alienation and discontent in the nigerian federation. The politics of ethnic and regional security play a key role in nigeria s political and economic development as well as its role in africa and the world in general. The politics of history in northern nigeria niels kastfelt centre of african studies university of copenhagen paper presented to the research seminar of the african studies centre, leiden, 27 april 2006 the politics of history in contemporary africa in recent years there has been a growing interest in the political uses of history in africa. Theoretical perspective 77 dedicated to strengthening ethnic politics in the west coleman, 1960. Lukman that nigeria badly needed a leadership that can rescue the country from the depth of chronic indiscipline, disorder.
The roots of nigerias religious and ethnic conflict the. Ethnic politics in nigeria by okwudiba nnoli groundwork. Overview of politics in the postcolonial era african politics in the postcolonial era has been marred by authoritarianism, corruption, military intervention, and leadership failures amidst a broader socioeconomic crisis. Ever since this merger, the polity has been characterized by ethnoreligious politics which has being the bane to national unity. These violent clashes have wreaked economic, political, and social havoc. As a result of this, the ingredients of democracy have not been able to thrive after many years of political independence in nigeria. During the subsequent period of military rule, from 1966 to 1979, nigerians witnessed. In earlier times, african ethnic groups were commonly labeled as tribes, a term that has mostly disappeared from. It also attempts to examine the relationship between religion, ethnicity, politics and national unity. Political participation and democratic culture in nigeria. Today in nigeria, there is serious rivalry among the major ethnic groups over issues such as power and resource sharing formula. Nigeria with over 300 ethnic groups, over dialects, who practiced several religions, with different cultures and histories came under the british imperialist in. This chauvinistic behavior affects the efficiency and productivity of nigeria.
The educational policies need to be good, and executors of these policies need also to be good. The idoma are people that primarily inhabit the lower western areas of benue state, nigeria, and kindred groups can be found in cross rivers state, enugu state and nasarawa state in nigeria. The relationship between politics and religion is intimate because there is always a point of convergence. It is a commonplace fact that nigeria is a multiethnic nation state with sociocultural. Nigeria was forcefully done without the peoples consent. Imperialism and ethnic politics in nigeria, 19601996 pade. Ethnic politics, ethnic conflicts, identity contests and the emergence of historically new ethnic identities are recurrent trends across. The following is a nonexhaustive list of ethnic groups in nigeria. Students were being asked to show their knowledge of human geography across multiple units of the course by utilizing a scale. Theoretical perspective 79 languages, customs and traditions gives the country a rich cultural diversity. Download pdf ethnic politics in nigeria free online. An impediment to political development in nigeria article pdf available november 2015 with 243 reads how we measure reads. Research assistants, department of political science, nasarawa state university, keffi, nigeria abstract this paper is an exploration of the role of women in the nigerian politics. As nigeria has this high number of human population, so is the number of political parties in the country as every politician wants to be governor or president.
Trends and dimensions of ethnic conflict in nigeria ethnic conflicts could take different forms and its manifestation could arise from different dimensions in the nigeria society. Ethnicity therefore has become a strong factor in the political life of nigeria. Many see it ethnicity as a segregation of some one simply because his or her birth place is different. It is the view of paper that though there are ethnic groups in africa and nigeria in particular, it is not a trajectory for national devolution or fragmentation in a. A nigerian newspaper and online version of the vanguard, a daily publication in nigeria covering nigeria news, niger delta, general national news, politics. Marxists argue that it is the ruling class that controls state power. In preindependence era, party politics in nigeria was based on ethnic factor thus one can say that it was during this period in question that the seed of ethnic politics was sown, germinated in the first republic and the products started spreading during the 3rd and 4th republics. Nigeria is said to be a british creation by uniting the various nationalities into a single country today known as the federal republic of nigeria. It is incontrovertible that nigeria is multiethnic and the interplay of this ethnic factor pose a certrifugal and daunting challenge to the corporate existence of nigeria as a nation. But how, has the media fared in this onerous task is what this study seeks to address. Groundwork of military law and military rule in nigeria by okay achike enugu, fourth dimension publishers, 1978. The zikist movement or youth wing of the ncnc had always suspected regionalisation of nigerian politics to be an outlet of ethnic rivalry and religious antagonisms. Interestingly in nigeria, the distinctive power of money in politics is as one of the reasons that undermined democratic governance in the past and became part of the reason for military. In the nigerian case study, the reconfiguration, formation of political parties, distribution of human.408 390 461 220 352 654 343 851 1043 998 516 878 811 429 1331 1538 778 1230 865 399 1520 1089 1086 958 1570 443 810 694 658 1271 1228 313 575 675 1441 655 158 410 694 207